The article deals with the formation of the Chinese banking system and its current state. The subject of the research is the Chinese banking system and its current state. The methodology of the research includes monographic, vertical and horizontal analysis. As a result of the research the genesis of the formation of the Chinese banking system was considered, the departments of the People’s Bank of China were designated and its functions were studied. The regulation of the People’s Bank of China is carried out by the law called “On the People’s Bank of China” and adopted on March 18, 1995. The latest changes were adopted on 12/27/2003. The list and the main stages of the development of joint-stock Chinese commercial banks were presented. The main requirements for foreign banks and the share of Chinese banks in the capital of foreign financial institutions were considered. The guidance of the People’s Bank of China is fulfilled by the manager and his deputies, who are appointed or removed from their post by the chairman of the PRC. Today, the People’s Bank of China performs two main functions: regulating the financial sector and conducting the monetary policy. The basis of the banking sector are large commercial banks. In 2003, the Standing Committee of the All-China Assembly of People’s Representatives adopted a row of amendments to the law, according to which the People’s Bank of China received a number of additional powers to ensure the overall financial stability and to conduct the country's monetary policy. Foreign currency transactions dominate in the activity of the People’s Bank of China. Chinese commercial banks are divided into two types: four banks with the state capital (“Big Four”) and joint-stock banks. The four largest banks with the state capital are: the Bank of China, the Agricultural Bank of China, the Commercial and Industrial Bank of China, and the Construction Bank of China. The aggregate amount of their assets was 53% of the total assets of the Chinese banking system in 2005. The country rating is determined by international agencies. The rating of China in the long term, both in the national and in the foreign currency is “A”.
The article deals with the history and current state of land relations in the agricultural sector of Russia, analyzes the land legislation of Russia, the problems and specifics of land ownership and land use in three sectors of the agricultural economy: agricultural organizations, peasant (farmer) economy, household farms. It is noted that in the process of economic reforms of the 1990s, the institutional framework and legal framework for all types of business activities in rural areas and the formation of a diversified agricultural economy were created. The author considers the institutional conditions of functioning, specialization and efficiency of agricultural production in all categories of farms. It is noted that the market transformation of the agricultural sector of Russia in the 1990s, aimed at adapting agricultural organizations to market conditions, was successful. This is evidenced by a significant reduction in loss-making farms. Peasant (farm) economy as an independent segment of the agricultural economy contrary to the expectations of the reformers did not become a leading sector of the agricultural economy. However, it has occupied a niche and produces about one tenth of the total production. The private sector remains a significant producer of agricultural products, although there is a decrease in its share. The paper considers land relations in historical retrospect. Legislative regulation of land relations is analyzed in the context of the “Land Code of the Russian Federation”. It provides for the rationality of the use and protection of land in the interests of the whole society, while ensuring the guarantees of each citizen for the free possession, use and disposal of land belonging to him. The author comes to the conclusion that the informal agrarian economy has become a form of survival of the rural population in the period of radical socio-economic reforms. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study was the fundamental research of agricultural problems of domestic and foreign authors. The study is based on the analysis of a wide range of statistical data, as well as materials of sample surveys characterizing the specifics of land relations in modern Russia.
The article analyzes self-management as a science of rational construction of one’s own life. The authors highlight the most important resource – the resource of time. The culture of using one’s own time and the time of other people is the most important aspect of the general culture of a person. The authors show that up to now self-management has been mainly considered as a set of some positive recommendations, or ready recipes of life. This is how it is mostly presented in modern literature. However, building your own life is a creative process, and these ready-made recipes do not work here. They do not take into account individual qualities of a person, as well as many other circumstances. The article presents another approach to self-management, which can be referred to as “inversive self-management”. It mainly deals with errors and difficulties (limitations) in self-management. Limitations in self-management are shown not as insufficiently developed skills, but as independent destructive stereotypes of behavior. In contrast to the methods of self-organization that require an individual approach, the limitations of self-management are quite stereotypical. In order to study them, the inverse relationship analysis is used. Inversion is a form of intra-system relationships in which the lowest element in the hierarchy actually becomes dominant in it, formally remaining in the same subordinate position. Hierarchical relationships are provided by the work of several organizational principles in the hierarchy. Inversion appears when there is a conflict between these organizational principles. So there are many limitations to self-management. Some components of human behavior that have adaptive significance begin to work against human productivity when the importance of these components is too great. The article examines a number of such examples. This article is an abstract of a more extensive study, which provides an analysis of the particular manifestations of restrictions in self-management, where the authors consider the difficulties in the formation of their own lives, caused by dependencies, adverse life scenarios, time orientation, etc. A number of these limitations are deeply rooted in culture.
The author considers complex systems and problems of their management highlighting the problems in the public sector. The purpose of the study is specification of its complexity as an independent object of management, which requires acceleration of the coordination role and improvement of coordination mechanisms in a complex system management. The paper considers different options of complex systems and elements of their complexity, and then, defines four main types of them: multiplicity complexity of affine components, their behavior and communication and also cognitive difficulties. The object of the research is the public sector having several perspectives of consideration, each of which forms certain specifics of functioning and the corresponding problems, approaches and elements of its management. The author puts forward a hypothesis of the need of an independent vector in administrative activities for the solution of problems of system complexity in the public sector which includes the following functions: modeling and design, coordination, estimation, intellectual analysis and “clever” regulation. In its turn, coordination (the most important complexity management component) represents a difficult mechanism of administrative actions which are implemented at three levels (macro-, meso- and micro-) and three types of interaction (horizontal, vertical and displaced interactions). The methodology of research is based on cross-disciplinary interaction of the economic theory and the system analysis which allows to increase integrity of consideration of the public sector, to unite knowledge for the purpose of formation of new ideas and concepts. The result of research is system representation of the phenomenon of the public sector as a complex system requiring a corresponding set of measures for managing its complexity. The results of the research can be used both in the theory and practice of management, as well as in the development of the public sector economy.
The article presents a brief overview of the history of fuzzy logic. The considered path starts with the three-digit logic developed by the Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz, who enters model statements (strong and weak approval and denial) and further develops an infinite (n-digit) logical system. Later in the works of Professor L. Zadeh there is fuzzy logic with an infinite number of results, created fuzzy sets – classes with inaccurately defined boundaries. We describe the main directions of fuzzy logic development in the field of data mining. It is shown that fuzzy logic is widely used in the field of economic research: in assessing the development of economic sectors, in insurance, decision support, modeling the economy of regions and countries, in forecasting and etc. Special attention is paid to the history of development and the possibilities of application of such direction of fuzzy logic as fuzzy cognitive modeling, the foundation for which was laid by the American researcher B. Kosko. The article includes examples of the use of cognitive approach to solve various problems in economic research, including theoretical analysis of the resource-dependent economy, the study of innovative processes in the resource-type economy, the construction of forecasts of the Russian economy. It is concluded that the existence of a lot of economic research that takes advantage of fuzzy logic indicates about its applicability to the study of various aspects of economic development.
The Department of Labor Economics and Personnel Management of the Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management held the XI Siberian Personnel Forum. It is a visiting card of the university in the field of HR technologies. The article presents the events of the forum, new formats for its organization and conduct. It has become a tradition within the framework of the forum to hold an All-Russian Correspondence Scientific and Practical Conference “Human Resources Management: Theory, Practice and Prospects”. This year it acquired the status of the “Zaninsky Readings”. The All-Russian Olympiad for students of educational institutions of higher education in Labor Economics and Personnel Management (the second and the third rounds) for the first time was held in two stages: a distance and full-time tour. The first was the online stage of the Olympiad. More than 100 students from various universities of the country took part in it. The second stage was the full-time format. The best students took part in it. They represented 15 Russian universities. Within the framework of the forum there was a number of events: an Interregional Olympiad of Schoolchildren on Personnel Management; an All-Russian Competition of Student Scientific Works in the Sphere of Labor Economics and Personnel Management dedicated to the memory of V. I. Zanin; an interuniversity competition “Expert on Labor Law"; round tables; scientific and practical conferences and master classes. Schoolchildren and teachers of comprehensive schools, students and teachers of Russian higher education institutions, representatives of the business community, including heads and specialists in personnel management, employees of recruitment agencies took part in the forum.
The article is devoted to the study of classification as the basis of accounting method. The author states that the role of classification in accounting has been studied rather poorly. Despite the centuries-old practice, the classification methodology is still at the stage of formation, which requires specification of the applied classification methodology. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief description of the history of classification as a general scientific method. The author describes the development of classification method by the Soviet (Russian) and Western scientific schools. The author states that currently the development of classification methodology is given too little attention, which underestimates its role in the formation of structured data. The author describes the types of hierarchical classifications on the example of information structures in accounting. The author identifies two types of hierarchical classifications, selected by the number of criteria applied at the same level of hierarchical division: a “multi-valued” level division and a “single-valued” one. The author analyzes the chart of accounts as a classifier of the facts of economic life. It is determined that the current chart of accounts corresponds to an unbalanced, irregular hierarchy with “multi-valued” level division. This structure is far from the optimal one. The author describes a number of anomalies in accounting due to the classification scheme used. Such anomalies include: violation of the unity of the base of division, violation of the ratio of the general and particular, violation of the completeness of the reflection of the allocated properties, violations of the information reflection of the sequence of economic processes, etc. Anomalies increase the risks of errors in the reporting data and misinterpretation of the reporting data, and reduce the intuitive clarity of accounting data. It is indicated that a promising direction of improving accounting is the use of “multi-valued” classification instead of the currently used hierarchical classification. The purpose of the paper is to characterize accounting as a classification of facts of economic life and to determine the characteristics and prospects of improving accounting classifications. In this paper, the classification is considered as the essence of the accounting procedure, the basis of accounting. The subject of the research is accounting as a classification of facts of economic activities. The research methodology includes the following methods: analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction and analogy.
In the article the author differentiates the concepts of technique and technology. He identifies four stages of the technique’s development. The first stage is “experimental technique”, which is characterized by magical conceptualization, the second - engineering (rational conceptualization), the third - design, the fourth - technology. Technique is characterized by five features: 1) technique means artifacts, 2) it can be viewed as a “social body” of an individual or society; 3) technique is a method of using the forces of nature; 4) the form of awareness; and finally, 5) it is mediation in the form of tools, machines and material environment, which makes it possible to realize the plans of a man. The author states that conceptualization of technology is an essential characteristic of its concept. If, for example, scholars write about Neolithic technology or the era of construction of the Egyptian pyramids, then it is just a retrospective interpretation, from the point of view of modern understanding of technology. It has sense, for example, when it is necessary to clarify the prerequisites for the development of technology, but in terms of thinking creates problems and contradictions. The author claims that technology develops in the second half of the 18th century as a new reality that describes industrial activities in the language of operations and their conditions - the division of labor, management. Simultaneously, the technology is characterized by the quality, economy, and standardization directives; rational description of production processes, their optimization; and training of the new type specialists - technologists. The author considers three stages of technology development. He also points out the characteristic features and the main types of technology: production, engineering, large techno-social projects, and global technologies. In conclusion the author discusses the conditions for the development of new technologies and shares his opinion on the anthropogenic civilization crisis and the ways to overcome it.
The authors consider the hypothesis of attractiveness of the urban environment from the standpoint of the formation of comfortable living conditions of the population. As one of the versions of creation of comfortable living conditions in the city agglomeration the authors analyze the concept of consumer services development, including: the services of household character, public catering and retail trade noted by Novosibirsk population as necessary, generating a feeling of comfort. The growth of birthrates in synergy with social and economic projects of support of young families and mortgage lending in the Russian Federation have led to the development of construction industry, active building in the remote urban areas. The central parts of the city don’t have enough space for the construction of dwelling houses, that’s why they are built in the remote from the center of the city territories, where the demand of the population for consumer services is many times higher than the supply. Such disproportion provokes in the population, living far from the center of the city, the feeling of discomfort, forcing people to spend more time and money on searching and purchasing of necessary services. Businessmen don't want to invest into the cultural and community objects, situated in the remote territories. The reason for it is a loss of the expected profit. In different areas of the city, the economic conditions for doing business are approximately the same, but there is a significant difference in the income of the population and the traffic of customers. So, the authors come to the conclusion, that it is rather doubtful, that the project “Formation of the Comfortable Urban Environment” initiated by the Government of the Russian Federation, will be implemented to a full extent. The authors are convinced, that without the targeted support of businessmen there won’t be any growth of private service enterprises, which will allow the population to reach the level of the required comfort, when the comfort acts as a condition of attractiveness of the urban environment.
The author considers the problems of social and labor relations in modern Russia. Social and labor relations have been transforming for about 27 years in Russia. The paper presents the fundamentals of social partnership as a new system of the relationship between employees and employers, which gives an opportunity to stand for the interests of hired workers. The author points out the main reasons for labor conflicts, defines the forms of workers’ protests and their attitude to them, analyses the practice of labor protests. The level of salary and its delays are the main causes for conflicts in labor relations. At the same time, there are other problems: non-payment by employers to insurance funds (e.g. to the pension fund), "grey" salaries, “games” with a salary, the structure of which is not in favor of employees, increasing working time and the amount of work performed, excessive differentiation of salaries by categories and sectors, and still working people remain poor. Such a situation results in reducing the opportunities for reproduction of labor force, its qualifications, labor efficiency, there is also worsening of the position of an employee after the termination of employment activities. In the future, this can lead to problems for both workers and the state. The author considers possible ways of development of social and labor relations. Formation of adequate social and labor relations is social responsibility of social partnership. Employers are rather active in reaching their goals, pursuing their interests, even in a difficult economic situation in the country. Therefore workers should also get involved in social partnership more actively, defend their interests collectively and individually, use all opportunities, taking into account the latest changes in the Labor Code of the RF. In particular, the author stresses the fact, that the mechanism of control and responsibility of the employer for non-fulfillment of laws concerning labor relations has been strengthened. In conclusion, the author draws attention to the fact, that the issue of changes in social and economic policy has been actively discussed for a long time already, that should help to change the situation in the issues of social and labor relations and improve the living standards of wage workers, to make these relations fairer.